Installation of Solaris 10, Packages & Patching

In this section we will go through :1. Solaris 10 installation basics
2. Installing and managing packages.
There can be different way in which we may need to install Solaris 10. If we install from scratch, it is called Initial installation, or we can Upgrade Solaris 7 or higher version toSolaris 10.

Hardware Requirement for Installation of Solaris 10
PlatformSPARC or X86 based systems
Memory for installation or upgradeMinimum: 64mb
Recommended: 256mb
For GUI Installation: 384mb or higher
SWAP areaDefault: 512mb
ProcessorSPARC: 200MHz or faster
X86: 120MHz or faster
H/W support for floating points is required
Disk SpaceMinimum: 12gb
Types of Installation:
  1. Interactive Installation (Interactive Installation)
1.      Press STOP +A at system boot to go to OBP (open Boot prompt)
2.      OK> printenv boot-device (Gives the first boot device)
3.      The o/p will be: disk (Here the first boot device is hard drive)
4.      OK> setenv boot-device cdrom (Setting the first boot device as cdrom)
5.      OK> boot (rebooting the system)
  1. Jumpstart Installation (Network Based Installation)
1.      Feed the following information into the server where we are going to save the image of the SOLARIS installation disk.
1.      HostName
2.      Client Machine IP address
3.      Client Machine MAC address
2.      STOP + A (Go to OBP)
3.      OK> boot net -install(It boots from the n/w and takes the image from the server where the client machine information was added in the step 1.) We will discuss this method of Installation in details in later section.
  1. Flash Achieve Installation (Replicate the same s/w & configuration on multiple systems)
1.      Copy the image of the machine which need to be installed. Save the image on a server.
2.      Boot the client machine with the SOLARIS disk and follow the normal interactive installation process.
3.      At the stage of installation where it asks for “specify media”, select “NFS”. NFS stands for network file system.
4.      Mention the server name and the image name in the format mentioned below:
                  200:100:0:1 :/imagename
  1. Live Upgrade (Upgrade a system while it is running)
  2. WAN boot (Install multiple systems over the wide area network or internet)
  3. SOLARIS 10 Zones(Create isolated application environment on the same machine after original SOLARIS 10 OS installation)

Modes of Installation of Solaris 10
1. Text Installer ModeThe Solaris text installer enables you to install interactively by typing information in a terminal or a console window.
2. Graphical User Interface (GUI) mode
The Solaris GUI installer enables you to interact with the installation program by using graphic elements such as windows, pull-down menus, buttons, scrollbars, and icons.

Different display options
MemoryDisplay Option
64-127MBConsole-based text only
128-383MBConsole-based windows-no other graphics
384MB or greaterGUI-based:windows, pull-down menus, buttons, scroll bars, icons

Note: If you choose “nowin boot” option or install remotely through the “tip” command, you are using console-based text option. If you choose the “text boot” option and have enough memory, you will be installing with the console-based windows option.

Solaris Software Terminology

As we know there are different flavors of an Operating System. In Solaris terminology, this flavor is called a software group, which contains software clusters and packages and are below:

1.   Package. As we have installer .exe in windows for installing various other software, Sun and its third-party vendors deliver software products in the form of components called packages. A package is the smallest installable modular unit of Solaris software. It is a collection of software—that is, a set of files and directories grouped into a single entity for modular installation and functionality. For example, SUNWadmap is the name of the package that contains the software used to perform system administration, and SUNWapchr contains the root components of the Apache HTTP server.
2.  Cluster. It is a logical collection of packages (software modules) that are related to each other by their functionality.
3.  Software group. A software group is a grouping of software packages and clusters. During initial installation, you select a software group to install based on the functions you want your system to perform. For an upgrade, you upgrade the software group installed on your system. 
4.  Patch. It is similar to windows update. It is a software component that offers a small upgrade to an existing system such as an additional feature, a bug fix, a driver for a hardware device, or a solution to address issues such as security or stability problems. A narrower definition of a patch is that it is a collection of files and directories that replaces or updates existing files and directories that are preventing proper execution of the existing software. Patches are issued to address problems between two releases of a product.
As shown in table below, the disk space requirement to install Solaris 10 depends on the software group that you choose to install.

Table : Disk space requirements for installing different Solaris 10 software groups
Software GroupDescriptionRequired Disk Space
Reduced Network Support Software GroupContains the packages that provide the minimum support required to boot and run a Solaris system with limited network service support. This group provides a multiuser text-based console and system administration utilities and enables the system to recognize network interfaces. However, it does not activate the network services.2.0GB
Core System Support Software GroupContains the packages that provide the minimum support required to boot and run a networked Solaris system.2.0GB
End User Solaris Software GroupContains the packages that provide the minimum support required to boot and run a networked Solaris system and the Common Desktop Environment (CDE).5.0GB
Developer Software GroupContains the packages for the End User Solaris Software Group plus additional support for software development which includes libraries, man pages, and programming tools. Compilers are not included.6.0GB
Entire Solaris Software GroupContains the packages for the Developer Solaris Software Group and additional software to support the server functionality.6.5GB
Entire Solaris Software Group plus Original Equipment Manufacturer(OEM)supportContains the packages for the Entire Solaris Software Group plus additional hardware drivers, including drivers for hardware that may not be on the system at the installation time.6.7GB
Package Naming Convention: The name for a Sun package always begins with the prefixSUNW such as in SUNWaccrSUNWadmap, and SUNWcsu. However, the name of a third-party package usually begins with a prefix that identifies the company in some way, such as the company's stock symbol.
When you install Solaris, you install a Solaris software group that contains packages and clusters.

Few take away points:
è If you want to use the Solaris 10 installation GUI, boot from the local CD or DVD by issuing the following command at the ok prompt:
ok boot cdrom
è If you want to use the text installer in a desktop session, boot from the local CD or DVD by issuing the following command at the ok prompt:
ok boot cdrom -text
The -text option is used to override the default GUI installer with the text installer in a desktop session.
è If you want to use the text installer in a console session, boot from the local CD or DVD by issuing the following command at the ok prompt:
ok boot cdrom -nowin
è Review the contents of the /a/var/sadm/system/data/upgrade_cleanup file to determine whether you need to make any correction to the local modifications that the Solaris installation program could not preserve. This is used in upgrade scenario and has to be checked before system reboot..
è Installation logs are saved in the /var/sadm/system/logs and /var/sadm/install/logsdirectories
è you can upgrade your Solaris 7 (or higher version) system to Solaris 10Installing and Managing PACKAGE in Solaris 10
In Solaris 10 packages are available in two different formats:
File System format: It acts as a directory which contains sub directories and files.
Data Stream Format: It acts as a single compressed file.
Most of the packages downloaded from the internet will be in data stream format. We can convert the
package from one from to another using the command: pkgtrans command.
To display the installed software distributing group use following command:
#cat /var/sadm/system/admin/clusterCLUSTER = SUNWCall (EDSSG without OEM) or SUNWXall(With OEM)
To display all information about all the installed packages in the OS:#pkginfo 
To display all the information about the specific package:#pkginfo SUNWzsh -> This is the package name.
To display all the complete information about the specific package:#pkginfo -l SUNWzsh  ->This is the package name.
To Install a package:#pkgadd -d /cdrom/cdrom0/SOLARIS10/product SUNWzsh
-d option specifies the absolute path to the software package.
Spooling a package : It is nothing but copying the package to the local hard drive instead of installing to.
The default location for the spool is /var/spool/pkg.
Command for Spooling a package to our customized locations
#pkgadd -d /cdrom/cdrom0/solaris10/product -s <spool dir> <Package Name>
-s option specifies the name of the spool directory where the software package will be spooled
Command for Installing the package from the default spool location
#pkgadd <Package Name>
Command for Installing package from customized spool location
#pkgadd -d  <spool dir>  <Package Name>
Command for Deleting the package from spool location
#pkgrm -s  <spool dir>  <Package Name>
Displaying the dependent files used for installing a package in OS
#pkgchk -v <Package Name>
If no errors occur, a list of installed files is returned. Otherwise, the pkgchk command reports the error.
To Check the Integrity of Installed Objects
# pkgchk -lp path-name
# pkgchk -lP partial-path-name

-p path: Checks the accuracy only of the path name or path names that are listed. Path can be one or more
path names separated by commas. Specifies to audit only the file attributes (the permissions), rather than the
file attributes and the contents, which is the default.
-P partial-path: Checks the accuracy of only the partial path name or path names that are listed. The partial-
path can be one or more partial path names separated by commas. Matches any path name that contains the
string contained in the partial path. Specifies to audit only the file contents, rather than the file contents and
attributes, which is the default.
-l : Lists information about the selected files that make up a package. This option is not compatible with the -
a, -c, -f, -g, and -v options. Specifies verbose mode, which displays file names as they are processed.

Command for Uninstalling a package
#pkgrm SUNWzsh
ü The complete information about the packages are stored under/var/sadm/install/contents file.
ü All the installed packages are stored under /var/sadm/pkg directory.
Patch Administration

A patch is a collection of files and directories that may replace or update existing files and
directories of a software. A patch is identified by its unique patch ID, which is an alphanumeric
string that consists of a patch base code and a number that represents the patch revision number;
both separated by a hyphen (e.g., 107512-10)
If the patches you downloaded are in a compressed format, you will need to use the unzip or the tar
command to uncompress them before installing them.

Installing Patches : patchadd command is used to install patches and to find out which patches are
already installed on system.
patchadd [-d] [-G] [-u] [-B <backoutDir>] <source> [<destination>]

-d. Do not back up the files to be patched (changed or removed due to patch installation). When this option
is used, the patch cannot be removed once it has been added. The default is to save (back up) the copy of
all files being updated as a result of patch installation so that the patch can be removed if necessary.
-G. Adds patches to the packages in the current zone only
-u. Turns off file validation. That means that the patch is installed even if some of the files to be patched have
been modified since their original installation.
-u. Turns off file validation. That means that the patch is installed even if some of the files to be patched have
been modified since their original installation.
<source>. Specifies the source from which to retrieve the patch, such as a directory and a patch id.
<destination>. Specifies the destination to which the patch is to be applied. The default destination is the
current system.

The log for the patchadd command is saved into the file : /var/sadm/patch/<patch-ID>/log

Few practical scenarios :
Obtaining information about all the patches that have already been applied on your system.
#patchadd -p.
Finding out if a particular patch with the base number 102129 has been applied on your system.
#patchadd -p | grep 102129 .
Install a patch with patch id 107512-10 from the /var/sadm/spool directory on the current
standalone system.
#patchadd /var/sadm/spool/107512-10.
Verify that the patch has been installed.
#patchadd -p | 105754.

The showrev command is meant for displaying the machine, software revision, and patch revision
information. e.g  : #showrev -p

Removing Patches : patchrm command can be used to remove (uninstall) a patch and restore the
previously saved files. The command has the following syntax:
patchrm [-f] [-G] -B <backoutDir>] <patchID>
The operand <patchID> specifies the patch ID such as 105754-03. The options are described here:
-f. Forces the patch removal even if the patch was superseded by another patch.
-G. Removes the patch from the packages in the current zone only.
-B <backoutDir>. Specifics the backout directory for a patch to be removed so that the saved files could be restored. This option is needed only if the backout data has been moved from the directory where it was saved during the execution of the patchadd command.
For example, the following command removes a patch with patch ID 107512-10  from a standalone system:
#patchrm 107512-10

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